The process for producing single yarn out of discontinuous filament of cocoon is known as Spinning. The process by which silkworm produce cocoons is also spinning. Eri cocoons are spun since they are opening mouthed and not composed of continuous filament.
Eri cocoons spinning are simple and the cocoons are spun using ‘Takli’ in almost all the production areas, however the spinning activities are largely concentrated in Palasbari, Bijoynagar, Goalpara, Kokrajhar and Udalguri. Of late, the Department of Sericulture, Govt. of Assam and Central Silk Board, Govt. of India intensified the Eri spinning activities after popularisation of the latest interventions. i.e. CSTRI spinning wheel and Ambar Charka spinning wheel. The large quantities of the Silk yarn produced in the state is utilised within the production state and small quantity of Eri yarn is sold outside the state. ‘Takli’ the age-old device for Eri spinning is still in vogue. About 57% spinners are engaged in spinning of yarn on ‘Takli’ and there is demand for such yarn or products in domestic as well as international market. For increasing the productivity of ‘Takli’ type yarn, an improved Flier spindle type-spinning machine has been developed by Hindustan Machineries, Bhagalpur which is being evaluated for final recommendation. This machine can be used to meet the demand of ‘Takli’ type yarn suited for weft. The machine also can be used for wet spinning to produce yarn suited for warp purpose. The productivity of this device is 60-100 gm per day as compared to 40 gm per day on Takli.
Based on cocoon shell weight, Muga and Eri cocoons can be classified as:
|Muga cocoon grade||Shell weight (gm)|
|B||0.45 - 0.60|
|C||0.45 - 0.03|
|Eri Cocoon grade|
|In case of Eri cocoons also its quality has remained static with its shell weight ranging from||0.4 to 0.5 gm.|
Yarn Quality: Muga yarn is mostly available in two Denier ranges i.e., 40/44 D (machine reeled) and 60/66 D (Bhir reeled). Only recently few reelers in Palashbari area have started producing Muga yarn of fine count (30/33 D) with limited production. As of now, there is no concept of Muga plied yarn, hence this has also restricted the scope of product development and diversification. Similarly in Eri sector most of the Takli spun yarn is of 12 S -15 S and machine spun yarn is of 15 S -18 S. As there is no local Spun Silk Mill to produce two-ply 60/2 and 120/2 Count yarn hence, product diversification of suiting & shirtings are not taking place. For developing products for furnishing etc. better results can be achieved through use of ghicha spun yarn.
Introduction of CATD Design
Before introduction of CATD at Sualkuchi and in other parts of the region only hand made designs were available, which are very slow to reproduce and difficult to correct or modify them once developed. Besides, it is impossible to have colour combination test on such designs.
CATD design system on commercial basis was first introduced at DCTSC Sualkuchi under UNDP Assisted Programme for Muga and Eri during the year 2003. This has helped in quicker design production, correction of designs and conducting pre-weaving colour combination test for fabrics. This has motivated many new private entrepreneurs to take up CATD design production as an enterprise and at present there are at least 10 numbers of computerized design unit in Kamrup district.